Oldest temple in the world found in Turkey

The Göbekli Tepe temple near Şanlıurfa, Turkey, about 20 miles from the Syrian border and not far from Mesopotamia, was discovered by a Kurdish shepherd. It turns out to be 11,500 years old, many thousands of years older than any other known human temple building, and apparently it is radically altering archeology’s understanding of the origins of human civilization. In short, it suggests that contrary to received archaeological opinion,  hunter gatherers came together and organized themselves in order to build a massive temple complex, and that it was the need to build the complex produced the need to organize agriculture and settlements, rather than the other way around. That is, religion and temples were not the constructions of organized agricultural societies but perhaps their cause, in what is a profound upset of one of the most basic fundamentals of our understanding of the human past. “It overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong.” Via here and here. They say many more temples in the complex have been detected using radar but have not yet been excavated. That interesting diagonal is apparently an arm, and the animal is a fox.

Update: new Guardian article on Urfa, another name for the Sanliurfa area of E. Turkey.

From Newsweek:

By Patrick Symmes
Feb 19, 2010
From the magazine issue dated Mar 1, 2010

They call it potbelly hill, after the soft, round contour of this final lookout in southeastern Turkey. To the north are forested mountains. East of the hill lies the biblical plain of Harran, and to the south is the Syrian border, visible 20 miles away, pointing toward the ancient lands of Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent, the region that gave rise to human civilization. And under our feet, according to archeologist Klaus Schmidt, are the stones that mark the spot—the exact spot—where humans began that ascent.

Standing on the hill at dawn, overseeing a team of 40 Kurdish diggers, the German-born archeologist waves a hand over his discovery here, a revolution in the story of human origins. Schmidt has uncovered a vast and beautiful temple complex, a structure so ancient that it may be the very first thing human beings ever built. The site isn’t just old, it redefines old: the temple was built 11,500 years ago—a staggering 7,000 years before the Great Pyramid, and more than 6,000 years before Stonehenge first took shape. The ruins are so early that they predate villages, pottery, domesticated animals, and even agriculture—the first embers of civilization. In fact, Schmidt thinks the temple itself, built after the end of the last Ice Age by hunter-gatherers, became that ember—the spark that launched mankind toward farming, urban life, and all that followed.

Göbekli Tepe—the name in Turkish for “potbelly hill”—lays art and religion squarely at the start of that journey. After a dozen years of patient work, Schmidt has uncovered what he thinks is definitive proof that a huge ceremonial site flourished here, a “Rome of the Ice Age,” as he puts it, where hunter-gatherers met to build a complex religious community. Across the hill, he has found carved and polished circles of stone, with terrazzo flooring and double benches. All the circles feature massive T-shaped pillars that evoke the monoliths of Easter Island.

Though not as large as Stonehenge—the biggest circle is 30 yards across, the tallest pillars 17 feet high—the ruins are astonishing in number. Last year Schmidt found his third and fourth examples of the temples. Ground-penetrating radar indicates that another 15 to 20 such monumental ruins lie under the surface. Schmidt’s German-Turkish team has also uncovered some 50 of the huge pillars, including two found in his most recent dig season that are not just the biggest yet, but, according to carbon dating, are the oldest monumental artworks in the world.

The new discoveries are finally beginning to reshape the slow-moving consensus of archeology. Göbekli Tepe is “unbelievably big and amazing, at a ridiculously early date,” according to Ian Hodder, director of Stanford’s archeology program. Enthusing over the “huge great stones and fantastic, highly refined art” at Göbekli, Hodder—who has spent decades on rival Neolithic sites—says: “Many people think that it changes everything…It overturns the whole apple cart. All our theories were wrong.”

Schmidt’s thesis is simple and bold: it was the urge to worship that brought mankind together in the very first urban conglomerations. The need to build and maintain this temple, he says, drove the builders to seek stable food sources, like grains and animals that could be domesticated, and then to settle down to guard their new way of life. The temple begat the city.

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3 Responses to “Oldest temple in the world found in Turkey”

  1. Jessica Says:

    Ask Ahmad. Temples in Iran run about the same age… give or take a couple hundred. But seriously old. And seriously in need of attention.
    So thanks again Professor Brown.

  2. LB Says:

    From what I’ve read, based on the carbon-dating it’s several thousand years older than any other surviving temple. The oldest ruins until now were I think Sumerian and they say there’s more time elapsed between these ruins and Sumer than there is between Sumer and us.

    These were about 10,000 BC. Stonehenge was 3000 BC; the Egyptian pyramids were 2500 BC.

    I just like the design. Apparently that diagonal is a human arm, making the whole standings stone a human figure, and the animal is a fox, though how they determine that I don’t know.


    “Gobekli is thus the oldest such site in the world, by a mind-numbing margin.”


    More argument that the place was the model for the story of the Garden of Eden:

  3. Annonomous Says:

    Fascinating we may have found the missing link to our human past.
    However, that thing everyone claims is an arm….if it is an arm, it doesn’t look human.

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